When working on an academic or research project, bibliographical references are a basic tool. What are they?

  • quote is when the author of a document partially transcribes a text, phrase or idea from someone else in order to enrich their work. It must always include a precise reference to the work it was taken from.

For example:

"When writing your academic work you will need to use a number of sources –such as books, articles, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, lecture notes and others. Every time you use information from a source, you must provide a reference– in other words, cite the surnames of the authors whose ideas have been mentioned in your work" (Altinay, Paraskevas and Jang, 2016, p. 63)

  • A reference is the basic information used to identify the original source from which certain information was taken. It allows readers to locate that original source and check the statements made in a document. These references must be listed in the bibliography at the end of the document.

For example:

Altinay, L., Paraskevas, A., and Jang, SooCheong (Shawn). (2016). Planning Research in Hospitality and Tourism. Oxon: Routledge

  • The bibliography is the list of all the sources consulted at one time or another in preparing a work (books or chapters from books, publications, articles, webpages, theses, etc.). 

For example:

Altinay, L., Paraskevas, A., and Jang, SooCheong (Shawn). (2016). Planning research in hospitality and tourism. Oxon: Routledge
Hart, C. (2012). Doing a literature search: a comprehensive guide for the social sciences. London: Sage
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. (2007). Research methods for business students. Esex: Pearson Education Limited 



Citing sources is essential for the following reasons:

  • It provides works with rigor and substantiates their statements
  • It recognizes authorship
  • It allows readers to verify the sources of information used
  • It prevents plagiarism  

Importancia de citar tus fuentes



Different citation styles exist, although there are a number of basic elements that are common to all of them (for example, the author, title or date).

When citing and referencing, is a good idea to consult the guide How to cite using different styles (books, publications, websites, etc.), which can provide useful guidance.  




There are many free tools that can be used to create and organize bibliographical references, no matter what style is used (APA, Vancouver, Harvard, etc.).